Пасечник (картина Крамского). Пасечник картина


Пасечник (картина Крамского) — Википедия (с комментариями)

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

К:Картины 1872 года Существуют другие картины с таким названием, см. Пасечник

«Па́сечник» — картина русского художника Ивана Крамского (1837—1887), написанная в 1872 году. Она является частью собрания Государственной Третьяковской галереи (инв. 5240). Размер картины — 63,5 × 49,2 см[1][2].

В письмах Крамского, на первых выставках и в каталогах также использовались другие названия для этой картины — «Старик на пчельнике», «Стар стал» и «На пасеке»[1].

История

Картина была представлена на 3-й выставке Товарищества передвижных художественных выставок («передвижников») в Санкт-Петербурге в 1874 году[1].

Картина была приобретена у автора Козьмой Солдатёнковым и стала частью его коллекции. В 1901 году, после смерти Козьмы Солдатёнкова, по его завещанию картина была передана в Румянцевский музей, из которого в 1925 году она перешла в собрание Государственной Третьяковской галереи[1].

Описание

Картина «Пасечник» принадлежит к серии крестьянских портретов Крамского, к которым, кроме неё, относятся «Мельник» (1873, ГРМ), «Полесовщик» (1874, ГТГ), «Созерцатель» (1876, КМРИ), «Мина Моисеев» (1882, ГРМ) и другие работы[3].

На картине изображён старик-пасечник, присевший отдохнуть. В руках у него коса, а за спиной — пасека с ульями для пчёл. Чувствуется, что, несмотря на старость, работа на пасеке является смыслом его жизни. Оптимистический настрой подчёркивается светлыми красками солнечного летнего пейзажа[3].

Отзывы

Владимир Порудоминский так писал об этой картине в своей книге о Крамском[4]:

Пасечник: светлый («просветлил господь») старичок на лугу среди колод ульев; кругом цветы душистые, высокие травы, а он в белой рубахе, присел с косой («Стар стал» — другое название картины) — всё, прожита жизнь, волосы посеребрила, натрудила руки, согнула плечи, благость старичка от бессилия, ушел в думу, что-то далёкое, несегодняшнее густой травой выбилось в памяти; не подняться мужичку, не взмахнуть косой.

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Примечания

  1. ↑ 1 2 3 4 Государственная Третьяковская галерея — каталог собрания / Я. В. Брук, Л. И. Иовлева. — Москва: Красная площадь, 2001. — Т. 4: Живопись второй половины XIX века, книга 1, А—М. — С. 291. — 528 с. — ISBN 5-900743-56-X.
  2. ↑ [www.art-catalog.ru/picture.php?id_picture=12548 Крамской Иван Николаевич — Пасечник, 1872] (HTML). www.art-catalog.ru. Проверено 23 апреля 2014.
  3. ↑ 1 2 Р. Кононенко. Иван Николаевич Крамской (Великие художники, том 13). — Москва: Директ-Медиа и Комсомольская правда, 2009. — 48 с. — ISBN 978-5-87107-186-1.
  4. ↑ В.И. Порудоминский. [www.tphv-history.ru/books/porudominskiy-kramskoy20.html Пролог к путешествию. 1874 год] (HTML). tphv.ru. Проверено 23 апреля 2014.

Отрывок, характеризующий Пасечник (картина Крамского)

Это выражение, видимо, понравилось офицеру. – Важно отбрил адъютантика, – послышался голос сзади. Князь Андрей видел, что офицер находился в том пьяном припадке беспричинного бешенства, в котором люди не помнят, что говорят. Он видел, что его заступничество за лекарскую жену в кибиточке исполнено того, чего он боялся больше всего в мире, того, что называется ridicule [смешное], но инстинкт его говорил другое. Не успел офицер договорить последних слов, как князь Андрей с изуродованным от бешенства лицом подъехал к нему и поднял нагайку: – Из воль те про пус тить! Офицер махнул рукой и торопливо отъехал прочь. – Всё от этих, от штабных, беспорядок весь, – проворчал он. – Делайте ж, как знаете. Князь Андрей торопливо, не поднимая глаз, отъехал от лекарской жены, называвшей его спасителем, и, с отвращением вспоминая мельчайшие подробности этой унизи тельной сцены, поскакал дальше к той деревне, где, как ему сказали, находился главнокомандующий. Въехав в деревню, он слез с лошади и пошел к первому дому с намерением отдохнуть хоть на минуту, съесть что нибудь и привесть в ясность все эти оскорбительные, мучившие его мысли. «Это толпа мерзавцев, а не войско», думал он, подходя к окну первого дома, когда знакомый ему голос назвал его по имени. Он оглянулся. Из маленького окна высовывалось красивое лицо Несвицкого. Несвицкий, пережевывая что то сочным ртом и махая руками, звал его к себе. – Болконский, Болконский! Не слышишь, что ли? Иди скорее, – кричал он. Войдя в дом, князь Андрей увидал Несвицкого и еще другого адъютанта, закусывавших что то. Они поспешно обратились к Болконскому с вопросом, не знает ли он чего нового. На их столь знакомых ему лицах князь Андрей прочел выражение тревоги и беспокойства. Выражение это особенно заметно было на всегда смеющемся лице Несвицкого. – Где главнокомандующий? – спросил Болконский. – Здесь, в том доме, – отвечал адъютант. – Ну, что ж, правда, что мир и капитуляция? – спрашивал Несвицкий. – Я у вас спрашиваю. Я ничего не знаю, кроме того, что я насилу добрался до вас. – А у нас, брат, что! Ужас! Винюсь, брат, над Маком смеялись, а самим еще хуже приходится, – сказал Несвицкий. – Да садись же, поешь чего нибудь. – Теперь, князь, ни повозок, ничего не найдете, и ваш Петр Бог его знает где, – сказал другой адъютант. – Где ж главная квартира? – В Цнайме ночуем. – А я так перевьючил себе всё, что мне нужно, на двух лошадей, – сказал Несвицкий, – и вьюки отличные мне сделали. Хоть через Богемские горы удирать. Плохо, брат. Да что ты, верно нездоров, что так вздрагиваешь? – спросил Несвицкий, заметив, как князя Андрея дернуло, будто от прикосновения к лейденской банке. – Ничего, – отвечал князь Андрей. Он вспомнил в эту минуту о недавнем столкновении с лекарскою женой и фурштатским офицером. – Что главнокомандующий здесь делает? – спросил он. – Ничего не понимаю, – сказал Несвицкий. – Я одно понимаю, что всё мерзко, мерзко и мерзко, – сказал князь Андрей и пошел в дом, где стоял главнокомандующий. Пройдя мимо экипажа Кутузова, верховых замученных лошадей свиты и казаков, громко говоривших между собою, князь Андрей вошел в сени. Сам Кутузов, как сказали князю Андрею, находился в избе с князем Багратионом и Вейротером. Вейротер был австрийский генерал, заменивший убитого Шмита. В сенях маленький Козловский сидел на корточках перед писарем. Писарь на перевернутой кадушке, заворотив обшлага мундира, поспешно писал. Лицо Козловского было измученное – он, видно, тоже не спал ночь. Он взглянул на князя Андрея и даже не кивнул ему головой. – Вторая линия… Написал? – продолжал он, диктуя писарю, – Киевский гренадерский, Подольский… – Не поспеешь, ваше высокоблагородие, – отвечал писарь непочтительно и сердито, оглядываясь на Козловского.

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Живопись и пчеловодство

Крамской И.Н. "Пасечник" (1872)

Крамской И.Н. "Пасечник" (1872)

Н.А.Богатов «Пасечник» (1875)

Н.А.Богатов «Пасечник» (1875)

Шильдер Андрей Николаевич "Пчельник" (1861-1919)

Шильдер Андрей Николаевич "Пчельник" (1861-1919)

И.И.Левитан "Пасека" (1880)

И.И.Левитан "Пасека" (1880)

Саврасов Алексей Кондратьевич "Сельский вид"

Саврасов Алексей Кондратьевич "Сельский вид"

Вржещ Е.К. "Пасека" (1853-1917)

Вржещ Е.К. "Пасека" (1853-1917)

Светославский Сергей Иванович «Весенний день. Пасека» (1899)

Светославский Сергей Иванович «Весенний день. Пасека» (1899)

И.И.Левитан "Пасека"

И.И.Левитан "Пасека"

И.И.Левитан "Пасека"

И.И.Левитан "Пасека"

Фёдор Васильев "Пасека"

Фёдор Васильев "Пасека"

Бровар Яков Иванович «Пасека»

Бровар Яков Иванович «Пасека»

А.В. Маковский «На пасеке» (1916)

А.В. Маковский «На пасеке» (1916)

Шишкин И.И. "Пасека" (1882)

Шишкин И.И. "Пасека" (1882)

Шишкин И.И. "Пасека" (1882)

Шишкин И.И. "Пасека" (1882)

Николай Владимирович Маковский "Пасека"

Николай Владимирович Маковский "Пасека"

Виктор Богров «Медовый рай»

Виктор Богров «Медовый рай»

Полуян-Внукова Надежда Владимировна «Осень. Астры на огороде» (1968)

Полуян-Внукова Надежда Владимировна «Осень. Астры на огороде» (1968)

Ярослав Зяблов "Старая пасека"

Ярослав Зяблов "Старая пасека"

Ирина Гусарова «Своя пасека» (2009)

Ирина Гусарова «Своя пасека» (2009)

Ф.В.Севостьянов "Школьники на колхозной пасеке" (1955)

Ф.В.Севостьянов "Школьники на колхозной пасеке" (1955)

Анохин Николай Юрьевич «Старые дубы» (1999)

Анохин Николай Юрьевич «Старые дубы» (1999)

Комаров Николай «Майский мёд»

Комаров Николай «Майский мёд»

Виталий Рубан «Пасека» (2010)

Виталий Рубан «Пасека» (2010)

В.Бабак "Пасека села Тухля" (2009)

В.Бабак "Пасека села Тухля" (2009)

Марченко Татьяна Михайловна «На пасеке» (1979)

Марченко Татьяна Михайловна «На пасеке» (1979)

Кузнецов-Фарфорский Дмитрий «Пасека»

Кузнецов-Фарфорский Дмитрий «Пасека»

Петр Малинин "Дальняя пасека"

Петр Малинин "Дальняя пасека"

Рассыпнов Виталий Иванович «Вечер на колхозной пасеке»

Рассыпнов Виталий Иванович «Вечер на колхозной пасеке»

Ходорович Владимир Павлович «Май»

Ходорович Владимир Павлович «Май»

Я.М.Хаимов "Колхозное пчеловодство"

Я.М.Хаимов "Колхозное пчеловодство"

Юрий Алексеевич Клапоух "Пасечник"

Юрий Алексеевич Клапоух "Пасечник"

Петр Малинин "Пасечник. Автопортрет"

Петр Малинин "Пасечник. Автопортрет"

Lexden L. Pocock «Girl and Bee Hives»

Lexden L. Pocock «Girl and Bee Hives»

Ernst Josephson

Ernst Josephson

Winslow Homer «The Busy Bee»

Winslow Homer «The Busy Bee»

Severin Nilson «Sommarlandskap med bärplockande flicka"

Severin Nilson «Sommarlandskap med bärplockande flicka"

Severin Nilson «Lillan i trädgården - motiv från Skåne"

Severin Nilson «Lillan i trädgården - motiv från Skåne"

А.Скиргелло «Пчельник»

А.Скиргелло «Пчельник»

Пчеловод Древнего Египта. Рельеф на гробнице Пабаса (двадцать пятая династия)

Пчеловод Древнего Египта. Рельеф на гробнице Пабаса (двадцать пятая династия)

Пчеловоды. Иллюстрации из средневекового манускрипта

Пчеловоды. Иллюстрации из средневекового манускрипта

Иван Шишкин Пасека (Буды) (1880)

Иван Шишкин Пасека (Буды) (1880)

Ким Бритов Осень на пасеке (2005)

Ким Бритов Осень на пасеке (2005)

David Claypool Johnston Bee Catching (1818)

David Claypool Johnston Bee Catching (1818)

Автор неизвестен Beekeeper (1875)

Автор неизвестен Beekeeper (1875)

Наталья Кладкова "На пасеке"

Наталья Кладкова "На пасеке"

bee45.ru

Пасечник (картина Крамского) - WikiVisually

1. Крамской, Иван Николаевич – Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi was a Russian painter and art critic. He was a leader of the Russian democratic art movement in 1860-1880. Kramskoi came from an impoverished petit-bourgeois family and he became one of the main founders and ideologists of the Company of Itinerant Art Exhibitions. In 1863–1868 he taught at the school of a society for the promotion of applied arts. Kramskois democratic ideals found their brightest expression in his portraits of peasants, in one of Kramskoi’s most well known paintings, Christ in the Desert, he continued Alexander Ivanovs humanistic tradition by treating a religious subject in moral–philosophical terms. He imbued his image of Christ with dramatic experiences in a psychological and vital interpretation. Aspiring to expand the ideological expressiveness of his images, Kramskoi created art that existed on the cusp of portraiture and these paintings disclose their subjects complex and sincere emotions, their personalities and fates. Ivan Kramskois gallery and biography Ivan Kramskoi Gallery at MuseumSyndicate Долгополов, Игорь Викторович Мастера и шедевры, В3 т

2. Холст – Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also used by artists as a painting surface. It is also used in such objects as handbags, electronic device cases. The word canvas is derived from the 13th century Anglo-French canevaz, both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for made of hemp, originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, although. It differs from other cotton fabrics, such as denim. Canvas comes in two types, plain and duck. The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven, the term duck comes from the Dutch word for cloth, doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways, by weight and by a number system. The numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4, canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, however, panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe. Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change, Venetian sail canvas was readily available, as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Early canvas was made of linen, a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength, linen is particularly suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas, often referred to as cotton duck, linen is composed of higher quality material, and remains popular with many professional artists, especially those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more fully and has an even, mechanical weave, the advent of acrylic paint has greatly increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are also available and they are available in a variety of weights, light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz, medium-weight is about 7 oz or 8 oz, heavy-weight is about 10 oz or 12 oz. They are prepared with two or three coats of gesso and are ready for use straight away, artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso

3. Масляная живопись – Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old

4. Государственная Третьяковская галерея – The State Tretyakov Gallery is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. In 1892, Tretyakov presented his famous collection of approximately 2,000 works to the Russian nation. The façade of the building was designed by the painter Viktor Vasnetsov in a peculiar Russian fairy-tale style. It was built in 1902–04 to the south from the Moscow Kremlin, during the 20th century, the gallery expanded to several neighboring buildings, including the 17th-century church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi. In 1977 the Gallery kept a significant part of the George Costakis collection, Pavel Tretyakov started collecting art in the middle of 1850. The founding year of the Tretyakov Gallery is considered to be 1856, schilder and Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers by V. G. Kudyakov, although earlier, in 1854-1855, he had bought 11 graphic sheets and 9 pictures of old Dutch masters, in 1867 the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov was opened. The Gallery’s collection consisted of 1,276 paintings,471 sculptures and 10 drawings of Russian artists, in August 1892 Tretyakov presented his art gallery to the city of Moscow as a gift. In the collection at time, there were 1,287 paintings and 518 graphic works of the Russian school,75 paintings and 8 drawings of European schools,15 sculptures. The official opening of the called the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel. The gallery was located in a mansion that the Tretykov family had purchased in 1851. As the Tretyakov collection of art grew, the part of the mansion filled with art and it became necessary to make additions to the mansion in order to store. Additions were made in 1873,1882,1885,1892 and 1902-1904, construction of the façade was managed by the architect A. M. In early 1913, the Moscow City Duma elected Igor Grabar as a trustee of the Tretyakov Gallery, on June 3,1918, the Tretyakov Gallery was declared owned by Russian Federated Soviet Republic and was named the State Tretyakov Gallery. Igor Grabar was again appointed director of the museum, with Grabar’s active participation in the same year, the State Museum Fund was created, which up until 1927 remained one of the most important sources of replenishment of the gallerys collection. In 1926 architect and academician A. V, shchusev became the director of the gallery. In the following year the gallery acquired the house on Maly Tolmachevsky Lane. After restructuring in 1928, it housed the administration, academic departments, library, manuscripts department

5. Москва – Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament also sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word also meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, puddle, Lithuanian, mazgoti and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, Sanskrit, majjati to drown, Latin, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists. The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality

6. Товарищество передвижных художественных выставок – In 1863 a group of fourteen students decided to leave The Imperial Academy of Arts. The students found the rules of the Academy constraining, the teachers were conservative, in an effort to bring art to the people, the students formed an independent artistic society, The Petersburg Cooperative of Artists. The society maintained independence from support and brought the art. From 1871 to 1923, the society arranged 48 mobile exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, after which they were shown in Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Oryol, Riga, Odessa and other cities. Peredvizhniki were influenced by the views of the literary critics Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Belinsky thought that literature and art should attribute a social and moral responsibility, like most Slavophiles, Chernyshevsky ardently supported the emancipation of serfs, which was finally realized in the reform of 1861. He viewed press censorship, serfdom, and capital punishment as Western influences, because of his political activism, officials prohibited publication of any of his writing, including his dissertation, but it eventually found its way to the artworld of nineteenth-century Russia. Peredvizhniki portrayed the many-sided aspects of life, often critical of inequities and injustices. But their art showed not only poverty but also the beauty of the way of life, not only suffering but also fortitude. Peredvizhniki condemned the Russian aristocratic orders and autocratic government in their humanistic art and they portrayed the emancipation movement of Russian people with empathy. They portrayed social-urban life, and later used historic art to depict the common people, during their blossoming, the Peredvizhniki society developed an increasingly wider scope, with more natural and free images. In contrast to the dark palette of the time, they chose a lighter palette. They worked for naturalness in their images, and the depiction of peoples relationship with their surroundings, the society united most of the highly talented artists of the country. Among Peredvizhniki there were artists of Ukraine, Latvia, and Armenia, the society also showed the work of Mark Antokolski, Vasili Vereshchagin, and Andrei Ryabushkin. The work of the critic and democrat Vladimir Stasov was important for the development of Peredvizhnikis art, pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov showed the work of these artists in his gallery and gave them important material and moral support. Landscape painting flourished in the 1870s and 1880s, Peredvizhniki painted mainly landscapes, some, like Polenov, used plein air technique. Two painters, Ivan Shishkin and Isaak Levitan, painted landscapes of Russia. Shishkin is still considered to be the Russian Singer of forest, the Russian landscape gained importance as a national icon after Peredvizhniki

7. Санкт-Петербург – Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a then called Ingermanland. A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life

8. Румянцевский музей – The Rumyantsev Museum was Moscows first public museum. It evolved from the art collection and library of Count Nikolay Rumyantsev. The Rumyantsev collection was opened to the public in 1831. It occupied the Rumyantsev House on English Quay in St. Petersburg, the museums library was its most valuable part, since 1845 affiliated with the Imperial Public Library. It was coveted by the city of Moscow which had no library of its own. It was Prince Vladimir Odoevsky who suggested to transfer the library to Moscow and his suggestion was approved by the Council of Ministers in 1861. The Pashkov House opposite the Moscow Kremlin was acquired to house the Rumyantsev Museum, St. Petersburgers did not welcome the relocation but were powerless to prevent it. Alexander II of Russia donated the enormous painting The Appearance of Christ before the People for the opening of the museum, once relocated to Moscow, the Rumyantsev collection was further augmented by valuable bequests, including Sontsovs cabinet of ancient coins. The Rumyantsev Museum was split into the departments of painting, engraving, numismatics, another department, known as the Dashkov Museum, was established after the All-Russian Ethnographic Exhibition of 1867. It was an important centre of ethnography displaying items collected by Yuri Lisyansky, Ivan Krusenstern, the Soviets decided to shut down the museum in 1924

9. Государственный Русский музей – The State Russian Museum, formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III is the largest depository of Russian fine art in Saint Petersburg. It is also one of the largest museums in the country, the museum was established on April 13,1895, upon enthronement of Nicholas II to commemorate his father, Alexander III. Its original collection was composed of artworks taken from the Hermitage Museum, Alexander Palace, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, many private collections were nationalized and relocated to the Russian Museum. These included Kazimir Malevichs Black Square, upon the death of the Grand Duke the residence was named after his wife as the Palace of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, and became famous for its many theatrical presentations and balls. Some of the halls of the palace retain the Italianate opulent interiors of the imperial residence. The Ethnographic Department was originally set up in a specially designed by Vladimir Svinyin in 1902. The museum soon housed gifts received by Emperors family from representatives of peoples inhabiting various regions of the Russian Empire, further exhibits were purchased by Nicholas II and other members of his family as State financing was not enough to purchase new exhibits. In 1934, the Ethnographic Department was given the status of an independent museum, the city of Málaga, home to thousands of Russian expats, has signed an agreement to host the first overseas branch of the State Russian Museum. Works displayed in Malaga will range from Byzantine-inspired icons to social realism of the Soviet era and they will be on display in 2,300 square metres of exhibition space in La Tabacalera, a 1920s tobacco factory. The new museum is scheduled to open in early 2015

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